Title: White Paper on Defense of Canada - Chapter VII: implementing defence policy
CHAPTER VII: IMPLEMENTING DEFENCE POLICY
Canada's military circumstances have changed enormously over the past seven years. Over the same period, the financial condition of the country has worsened considerably. For these reasons "business as usual" is no longer an acceptable approach to defence policy.
The defence policy put forward in this White Paper is hard-nosed and realistic, but also mindful of our global responsibilities. It allows us both to uphold our essential military traditions and renew our commitment to global stability. It clearly represents a major evolution - a step change in Canadian defence policy. It heralds a fundamental transformation of the way in which the Canadian Forces and the Department of National Defence will conduct their operations and do business in the coming years.
In setting this new course, the Government has had to make hard choices. Most areas of defence will be cut - staff, infrastructure, equipment, training, operations - some substantially more than others. The relative weights of the naval, land and air establishments that have prevailed for many years will be adjusted, primarily to allow for the transfer of resources to where they are most needed - mainly to land combat and combat support forces -in response to the added emphasis being placed on multilateral activities, and particularly peace and stability operations.
Maintaining the essential capabilities of the Canadian Forces at a time of fiscal restraint represents a difficult challenge. The defence program has been substantially revised to reflect only the most essential priorities. Everything is being made leaner - everything is undergoing the closest scrutiny. Major cuts in headquarters and support activities will mean more resources devoted to combat forces and less to administrative overhead. This will ensure that the Canadian Forces remain well commanded, properly trained, and adequately equipped for the missions the Government asks them to carry out.
MANAGEMENT, COMMAND AND CONTROL
Reductions of National Defence Headquarters and Subordinate Headquarters
While the structural foundations of the Department and the Canadian Forces are basically sound and capable of meeting the challenge, they can be further streamlined. The Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces will, in particular, continue to improve resource management through initiatives such as Defence 2000 to ensure the best possible use of resources at all levels of the organization. This management policy emphasizes the delegation of decision-making authority, the empowerment of personnel, the elimination of `red tape' and overlappingfunctions, and the promotion of innovation. The Department and Forces will, by 1999, reduce by at least one-third the personnel and resources committed to headquarters functions.
The integrated National Defence Headquarters (NDHQ) has been in existence for more than 20 years. NDHQ fosters a close military-civilian relationship and brings together a wide range of knowledge, skills and perceptions, which all contribute to more focused, coherent, and efficient defence management. At the strategic level, military activity is intertwined with - and inseparable from - social and economic considerations, as well as public and policy imperatives. This was most clearly demonstrated during the Gulf War and the crisis at Oka. International, military, financial, public and Cabinet concerns had to be reconciled promptly, and prudent choices made. A responsive headquarters is also essential if we are to maintain our very active role in peacekeeping and other multilateral operations. Thus the Government can see no compelling reason that would justify reversing the civilian-military integration of National Defence Headquarters.
Command and Control
The Canadian Forces' command and control structure has proven both responsive and adaptable, but takes up too large a proportion of the resources available to defence. In response to the recommendations of the Special Joint Committee on Canada's Defence Policy, a new command and control structure will be put into place by mid-1997. It will be based on sound military command and control principles, and respond to the need to increase the proportion of operational personnel - thus increasing the "tooth-to-tail" ratio. The command of military operations will continue to be exercised by the Chief of the Defence Staff - normally through a designated operational commander - and one layer of headquarters will be eliminated.
Capital Equipment Program
The changed security environment and current fiscal circumstances demand that National Defence radically restructure plans to purchase capital equipment. The emphasis will be on extending the life of equipment wherever cost-effective and prudent. New equipment will be acquired only for purposes considered essential to maintaining core capabilities of the Canadian Forces, and will be suited to the widest range of defence roles. Wherever possible the Canadian Forces will operate fewer types of equipment than is now the case and purchase equipment that is easier to maintain. The Department will also explore innovative ways to acquire and maintain equipment. Planned acquisitions will be cut by at least 15 billion dollars over the next 15 years. As a result, a large number of projects currently in plans will be eliminated, reduced or delayed.
The Department of National Defence will adopt better business practices - greater reliance will, for example, be placed on "just-in-time" delivery of common usage items to reduce inventory costs. The Department will increase the procurement of off-the-shelf commercial technology which meets essential military specifications and standards. Full military specifications or uniquely Canadian modifications will be adopted only where these are shown to be absolutely essential. The Department will also enhance its partnership with the private sector. Where business-case evaluations demonstrate potential for increased cost effectiveness, support activities currently conducted "in house" will be transferred completely to Canadian industry or shared with private industry under various partnership arrangements. The Department will continue to seek out new ways to support operational forces. The materiel supply system and its processes will become markedly more efficient through consolidation and the adoption of advanced technology. Further steps will also be taken to modernize and streamline the procurement process in consultation with other concerned departments.
In the midst of all these changes it is important to recognize the relationships between Canadian defence policy and Canadian industry. In today's world, multi-purpose, combat capable forces require the support of a technologically sophisticated industrial base to be effective. In addition, in all leading industrial nations there is a close linkage between expenditure on defence R&D and procurement and the growth of many high technological sectors. In Canada, almost 60,000 people are employed in high technology industries like aerospace and electronics, which are linked to defence procurement. These linkages extend far beyond the production of defence equipment to include technological spin-offs into commercial products and access to international markets. The challenge of lower R&D and capital spending and more off-the-shelf purchasing will be to maintain and improve the industrial impact of those expenditures which remain. To this end, National Defence will work with Industry Canada, as well as Public Works and Government Services Canada, towards harmonizing industrial and defence policies to maintain essential defence industrial capability. The Government will seek to foster defence conversion, overall industrial growth, and the international competitiveness of Canadian firms consistent with our international trade agreements.
Infrastructure and Support
Although National Defence has made considerable headway in reducing defence infrastructure and support, further reductions are both possible and necessary. Action is underway to extend significantly the defence infrastructure and support service rationalization mandated in the 1994 federal budget.
The Government agrees with the finding of the Special Joint Committee that the modest program of assistance to Canadian universities and other institutions involved in defence studies is a highly worthwhile investment. This program will be maintained. A chair of defence management studies will also be established.
Personnel cuts will continue. The reductions will be implemented in an orderly, fair and equitable manner. The Government is firmly committed to dealing humanely and reasonably with those of its employees whose jobs are eliminated, and to working with the unions.
Code of Service Discipline
The Code of Service Discipline, set out in the National Defence Act, has been in existence for almost 45 years with only limited amendments. There have been significant changes in Canadian social and legal standards during that time. The Government will amend the National Defence Act to update its provisions to meet modern military requirements. This will involve, in particular, amendments to the military justice system as it relates to both courts martial and summary trials.
Terms of Service
The Government will place more emphasis on renewable, short-term periods of service for members of the Canadian Forces. The period of service for engagements will depend upon the skills and training required to do the job. Reservists participating in and returning from operational assignments will benefit from the same post-operational care now available to the Regular Force.
Military career paths will be restructured to reduce the number of postings and assignments that a permanent member of the Canadian Forces can expect over a lifetime of service. This policy will result in fewer relocations, and thus ease the burden on military personnel and families, and save money for the Government.
The Canadian Forces will reduce military staff in certain occupations and trades as functions are contracted out or reassigned to civilian employees. The new command and control structure will substantially reduce the overall number of senior positions, and the ratio of general officers and senior civilian officials to overall strength, as well as the ratio of officers to non-commissioned members in the Regular Forces and the Reserves, will be significantly decreased.
The percentage of women in the Canadian Forces is among the highest of any military force in the world. Nevertheless, the commitment to making military careers more attractive to women will be reinforced. Although the need for "universality of service" in the military remains paramount, the Department and the Forces will ensure that equitable employment opportunities continue to exist for all Canadians, regardless of gender, race, sexual orientation, or culture, and will strictly enforce the policy of "zero harassment" in the work place.
Proposals for enhancing the federal government policy on reserve leave will be developed. The Government will encourage, and seek out new ways for other levels of government and private companies - particularly small businesses - to do the same. The Canadian Forces will also emphasize the importance of availability for active duty when recruiting reservists.
The civilian workforce is an integral component of the Defence team. Highly qualified public servants play a wide variety of essential roles within the organization in support of the achievement of the defence mission, from the delivery of skilled services at local levels to the provision of professional administrative, scientific and academic services. While the overall numbers of civilian employees will be further reduced to approximately 20,000 by 1999, our civilian employees will continue to play critical roles in the effective implementation of the new policy.
The Canadian Forces are a unified force of maritime, land and air elements. Their structure is based on a Total Force concept that integrates full- and part-time military personnel to provide multi-purpose, combat-capable armed forces. Under the Total Force concept, Regular Forces are maintained to provide the Government with a ready response capability; Reserve Forces are intended as augmentation and sustainment for Regular units, and, in some cases, for tasks that are not performed by Regular Forces - such as mine countermeasure operations. The concept also provides the framework for training and equipping the Reserves.
Progress has been made in the implementation of the Total Force concept, with many reservists now fully ready to undertake Regular Force functions. Indeed, in recent years, several thousand reservists have served in demanding missions at home and abroad. The Total Force approach is right for Canada. The Government recognizes the continuing need for a national mobilization framework; however, changes are needed to reflect Canada's requirement for ready forces if it is to be able to meet domestic needs and contribute to multilateral operations.
The new strategic environment has prompted the Government to reconsider the traditional approach to mobilization planning. Mobilization plans must provide for a graduated and orderly transition from routine peacetime operations to higher levels of involvement, which ultimately could include the total mobilization of the nation. Accordingly, mobilization plans will be revised on the basis of a new, four-stage framework.
- The first stage of a response to any crisis or emergency would involve "force generation"; that is, all measures needed to prepare elements of the Canadian Forces to undertake new operational tasks, and to sustain and support them. These functions will be undertaken within the existing resource framework of the Canadian Forces. They will include the training and preparation of reservists to augment the Regular Force.
- The next stage, "force enhancement", would involve the improvement of the operational
capabilities of the existing forces through the allocation of more resources. It would be undertaken without permanent change in the posture or roles of the Canadian Forces, although the formation of temporary units or specialist elements could prove necessary.
- This level of mobilization is similar to actions taken in response to the 1990 war in the Persian Gulf and all current peacekeeping commitments.
- "Force expansion", the third stage, would involve the enlargement of the Canadian Forces - and perhaps selected elements of the Department of National Defence -to meet a major crisis or emergency. It will involve permanent changes in the roles, structures, and taskings of the Canadian Forces - and could call for theformation of new units, the enhancement of existing facilities, and the procurement of additional equipment.
- This stage is similar to the structural and role changes undergone by all elements of the Canadian Forces and the Department of National Defence in 1950-1952, when Canada provided armed forces to the United Nations' multinational force in Korea, and to the newly formed NATO in Europe.
- Finally, while a major global war is highly unlikely at this time, it remains prudent to have ready "no-cost" plans for total "national mobilization". This fourth step could touch upon all aspects of Canadian society and would only come into effect with the proclamation by the Governor-in-Council of a "war emergency" under the Emergencies Act.
Revised Force Posture
By 1999, the strength of the Regular Forces will be reduced to approximately 60,000 and the Primary Reserve to approximately 23,000. This, together with the new mobilization concept and renewed emphasis on multilateral operations in support of global stability, will dictate a number of force structure adjustments. In light of the need to maintain adequate states of readiness - to respond to UN or other multilateral taskings, for example - the current balance between regulars and reservists in operational units is no longer appropriate. The Government agrees with the Special Joint Committee that the land force must be expanded. A total of approximately 3,000 additional soldiers will be added to the army's field force. The additional resources will be provided through reductions in headquarters, restructuring of the three services, and a reduction in the size of the Reserves.
The Reserves are a national institution and provide a vital link between the Canadian Forces and local communities. Their primary role will be the augmentation, sustainment, and support of deployed forces. While the overall number of reservists will be reduced, the quality and overall ability of the Reserves to provide the Total Force with trained personnel for unit augmentation will be significantly improved. A thorough examination of all elements of the Primary and Supplementary Reserves will be conducted with the aim of enhancing their ability to respond to new requirements and the new mobilization approach. The Government recognizes that a greater proportion of the Reserves' resources must go towards improving their operational capability and availability. In particular, the Militia structure requires attention and rejuvenation to ensure that units are more efficient and better able to contribute to the Total Force concept. Consideration will also be given to assigning more service support roles - such as medical, logistics, communications and transport functions - to the Reserves. To the extent that changes may also be required in the Naval, Air and Communications Reserves, the same general pattern will be followed. The Supplementary Reserve, comprised of former military personnel who could augment the Regular Force in an emergency, will be maintained, but will no longer be funded.
Many reserve units, despite long and honourable service, have diminished in size and effectiveness in recent years and their armouries are under-used. The new strategic and fiscalenvironment will require a streamlining of reserve organizations and rank structures. Every effort will be made to maintain the traditions and effectiveness of reserve regiments. However, local communities must take more responsibility to help sustain Reserve traditions and activities.
The Canadian Rangers reflect an important dimension of Canada's national identity and the Government will enhance their capability to conduct Arctic and coastal land patrols. The Government will also modestly increase the level of support to Cadet organizations to help expand their role in building citizenship and advancing national unity.
CANADIAN DEFENCE PERSONNEL
Operational Maritime Forces
Since the end of the Cold War, Canada's maritime forces have maintained multi-purpose combat capabilities to carry out a wide variety of domestic and international operations. They have substantially reduced anti-submarine warfare activities connected with the protection of shipping and countering missile-carrying submarines in the North Atlantic, while increasing their participation in UN and multilateral operations.
The navy will be able to form a task group on the West Coast and another on the East Coast from among units of the Atlantic and Pacific fleets. To facilitate this new focus, naval ships are being re-distributed to achieve a better balance between Canada's two open-water oceans. Cooperation and co-ordination between the various government fleets will continue to be improved.
Canada's maritime forces will be adequately equipped to carry out their new array of tasks. There is an urgent need for robust and capable new shipborne helicopters. The Sea Kings are rapidly approaching the end of their operational life. Work will, therefore, begin immediately to identify options and plans to put into service new affordable replacement helicopters by the end of the decade.
The Special Joint Committee on Canada's Defence Policy found that submarines can conduct underwater and surface surveillance of large portions of Canada's maritime areas of responsibility, require relatively small crews, can be operated for roughly a third of the cost of a modern frigate, and work well with other elements of the Canadian Forces. It also recommended that, if it should prove possible in the current environment of military downsizing around the world to acquire three to six modern diesel-electric submarines on a basis that was demonstrably cost-effective (i.e., that could be managed within the existing capital budget), then the Government should seriously consider such an initiative. The United Kingdom is seeking to sell four recently constructed conventional submarines of the Upholder-class, preferably to a NATO partner. The Government intends to explore this option.
To maintain sufficient capability to sealift troops, equipment and supplies for multilateral operations, the support ship HMCS Provider (initially slated to be paid off in 1996) will be retained in service, and plans for the eventual replacement of the existing fleet will be considered. Starting in 1995, the navy will receive the first of 12 modern Maritime Coastal Defence Vessels (to be crewed primarily by reservists), intended to provide a coastal defence and mine countermeasure capability that has been lacking.
Operational Land Forces
The importance of the Canadian Forces' mission to support an allied land campaign in Central Europe has diminished, allowing the withdrawal of our forces from Europe. Multi-purpose combat capabilities are now maintained to carry out a wide variety of domestic and international operations.
Canada's land forces will be adequately equipped to carry out their new array of tasks. The materiel of the three brigade groups will be improved. Current plans call for the acquisition of a variety of modern equipment essential to the maintenance of a multi-purpose combat-capability.
There exists, for example, a recognized operational deficiency in the armoured personnel carrier fleet. Its mobility, protection and defensive firepower must be brought into line with the modern requirements of environments likely to be encountered in today's UN and other multilateral missions. The Canadian Forces will, therefore, acquire new armoured personnel carriers for delivery, commencing in 1997. Modernization of part of the present inventory will add other suitably armoured personnel carriers to the fleet. The relatively new Bison APCs will be retained in service.
The fleet of Cougar armoured training vehicles that are part of the army's close-combat, direct-fire capability in peace and stability operations will eventually have to be replaced.
Operational Air Forces
The focus of air planning and operations has shifted from missions driven primarily by the former Soviet threat to a more balanced set of national and international priorities. Multi-purpose combat capabilities are now maintained to execute a wide variety of domestic and international operations, as well as to provide support to maritime and land operations.
Canada's air forces will be adequately equipped to carry out their new array of tasks. The Labrador search and rescue helicopters will be replaced as soon as possible. While this role may be performed using the same helicopter that we acquire for the maritime role, we also intend to explore other possibilities, including different forms of partnership with the private sector for aircraft maintenance, and potentially, alternative arrangements for financing acquisition of a replacement.
Expenditures on fighter forces and support will be reduced by at least 25% as recommended by the Special Joint Committee on Canada's Defence Policy. To achieve these savings, the Department will retire the CF-5 fleet, cut the cost of fighter-related overhead, reduce the annual authorized flying rate, and cut the number of operational aircraft from 72 to between 48 and 60. The initial training of fighter pilots to operational standards will be modified, with fighter lead-in training formerly done on the CF-5 apportioned between the Tutor jet trainer and the CF-18. These changes will serve to prolong the life of the CF-18 fleet and delay the need to buy a replacement aircraft well into the next century.
The multi-purpose capability of the CF-18 will be enhanced through the acquisition of a small number of precision-guided munitions. This will afford the Government a very accurate close air support capability and maximize the usefulness of the aircraft. It will, in particular, provide new options for the use of this sophisticated weapons system in circumstances applicable today with ammunition so accurate as to minimize damage outside the target area.
In the absence of valid offers to buy the VIP A-310 Airbus, and in recognition of the future demand for strategic airlift support, it will, as recommended by the Special Joint Committee, be reconfigured for a strategic transport and air cargo role.